My first guess would be that this would be caused by the screen size, as a game like this should not be slow due to the amout of things to compute (the only thing it does is calculating time and checking the colors), unless something I am not thinking about happens.
on my galaxy tab 3, it runs great on chrome, May I ask how you are doing the .apk in the end? (if you are using phonegap or simply cordova without crosswalks, it can be the cause if the samsung duos , the s4 and the xperia z3 are running android lollipop while the galaxy note 3 is running an older version of android)
also, does the web version works great on all of them, or is the note 3 also slower in that version?
(by the way, nice game)
Game design is all about decomposing the core of your game so it becomes simple instructions.