Just an update, for anyone that cares.
I think @UncleJunkie's link put me onto a great way to handle this. I didn't intend for this to be a "Terraria-ish" type game, but this has lead me to an interesting mechanic for another game I have planned AND it may have led me to a way to simulate a type of vector type terrain for this one. If I use a similar style grid terrain system and different top sprites with varying surface angles I could provide a like style surface but with a higher "resolution", so to speak. I just have to make sure that each angled surface sprite corresponds and matches the adjacent sprites. Not quite a vector drawing system but it would fit my needs. However, this could lead to a vector-ish drawing using grids and sprites. Maybe I'll work on that later, but, for now, I think I have my direction.
Thanks for all of your support!