I know how to move a sprite along an angle, but I want to move some variables (X & Y) along an angle and distance that I already know (the angle between the player and the mouse cursor). So basically I want to know the math function to update the X and Y position of my sprite with an angle/distance without actually moving the sprite.

I understand that I could move the sprite, update the values, then move the sprite back, or similar tricks. But I want to know the actual mathematical solution (trig functions I think?).