sometimes it happens to me. I start the game in my Android device and only a white screen appears.
To me, this happens when I've made something in a wrong mode.
First of all, be sure to export your game using the PhoneGap option and not the HTML5 option. Sometimes for mistake I use HTML5 export and even if PhoneGap produces the app, it doens't work.
Be sure to use correct layout size, for example 800x480 pixels if this is your device display resolution. Sometimes I use 640x960 (the iPhone res.) and it works (with the fullscreen mode on), but sometimes some other resolutions give problems (I don't know why).
Try to change fullscreenmode, webgl and other system settings, maybe one in particular gets error with your device.
This is my experience, but here in the forum there are more professional users.